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                                  The political system of Great Britain

Politics policy

economics

issue

political

 

 

 

 

 

National, situation, countries, position, local, human rights, educational, Ukrainian, important, recession, demonstration, point of view, growth, environmental, major, political, summit, planning, party, system, reform, big, career, key.

Complete the gaps with one of the words given in the box.

  1. The key __________ in the next election will be unemployment.
  2. The 1950s saw a period of_________ growth in the UK.
  3. The Prime Minister of the country left teaching to pursue a _________ career.
  4. The President discussed the ________ of human rights during his visit to Geneva.
  5. Many young people nowadays are not interested in__________.
  6. Even when she studied at university, Margaret Thatcher was deeply involved in local________.

How can you become the leader of the country?

One way is to be born into a __ family. If you are a prince, especially the ______ son, then one day you can become king. In some countries, eldest daughters can become queens if there are no___ in the family. Of course, today there not many royal families and those that still exist do not usually have_____ to make laws and govern the country. A more usual way to become a leader is to become a popular __ and then the leader of your political party. In most countries where the people____ their government, the voters usually____ for a person who belongs to one of the main political parties. This person is usually the ____for the local region. This candidate who receives the votes become the political ____ for that region and takes a seat in the national_______.The political party which wins the most seats then has the rights to form a______ and takes power. The head of that political party than becomes the ____ or the prime minister of the country.

Are you interested in politics? Do you think people should be politically active if they want to change their life for the better?

What do you think about the institution of monarchy? Would you like to have king or a queen or tsar in Ukraine?

If you were elected the President of Ukraine, what would you first edicts be?

 

 

 

Scotland

 

Scotland is situated in the northern part of the island Great Britain. The ancient name of the county was “Caledonia”. Many years ago it was an independent country and in 1707 it was united with England. Scotland is washed by the North Sea in the east and the Atlantic Ocean in the west. This country is bounded by England only. Scotland together with 186 inhabited islands has a total area of 30,414 square miles. Administratively it is divided into 33 countries. The population of Scotland is nearly 5,2 million people. The official language of the country is English; the national one is Scottish Gaelic. The inhabitants of Scotland call themselves Scots. Scottish surnames usually begin with “Mac”, “Mc”, that means “the descendant of” – Mac Donald, for example.

The Highlands occupy the northern part of the country are the Glide, the Forth, the Tay.  Scotland has a lot of lovely lakes which is called “lochs” here. The beautiful lake Lomond is the largest but Loch Ness is known much better thanks to Nessy, a strange dragon like animal that, people say, lives here. The climate of the country is greatly influenced by its position, and the nearness to the seas. It often rains in the western part of the country. The Highlands are covered with snow till May.

Thanks to the beautiful nature, Scotland becomes the centre of tourism. Lovely lakes, especially Loch Ness, mysterious castles are visited by tourists from all over the world. Scotland is the land of myths and mysteries; people say that every castle has its ghost. The capital of Scotland is Edinburgh; it is an old city with population of about 470 thousand people. It is the principle port of the country, at the same time it is University City, with the finest architecture in Europe. The Scots are very sociable people, they like to spend their free time together, drinking coffee and talking, singing in chorus at the national music festivals or at fairs.

Many years ago the4 territory of the country was divided by clans. Each clan has its own tartan, which both men and women wear. The Scots are great patriots of their country; they keep their old traditions and customs. Scotsmen are the only nation in Europe where men prefer to wear kilts not trousers. The most popular musical instrument in Scotland is bagpipe. The Scots have many interesting traditions. The national emblem of Scotland is the thistle. The people of this country have chosen thistle their national emblem, because it saved their land from foreign invaders many years ago. The 30-th of November is the national Scottish holiday. St.Andrew is the saint patron of Scotland. St.Andrew’s flag has a white cross on a blue field.

  1. Is Scotland the part of the United Kingdom?
  2. Where is it situated?
  3. What language does the inhabitant of Scotland speak?
  4. Is Glasgow the capital of Scotland?
  5. What lake is a monster supposed to live in?
  6. Why is the national emblem of the country such an unusual plant?
  7. Which tradition of the country can you describe? (home task).

 

                                      Northern Ireland

Northern Ireland is the smallest component of the United Kingdom of Great Britain. It consists of 6 counties of the Ulster’s province, so the name “Ulster” is sometimes used as equivalent to Northern Ireland. The country has a total area of about 5,462 square miles. It became the part of the United Kingdom in 1921. This country occupies the north-eastern corner of Ireland. In the south and west Northern Ireland is bounded by the Irish Republic. It is washed by the Atlantic Ocean in the4 north, t6he North Channel and the Irish Sea in the east.

The population of the country is 1.5 million people. 98 per cent of the population is the Irish. The official language of the country is English, the national one is Irish. Many Irish surnames begin with O’-O’Neil for example; O’-means the son of Neil.

The climate is mild and wet, and rains are frequent. That is why Irishmen call their country the clearest place in the world. Grass grows well in Ireland because of damp soil; it makes the island look so beautiful. Emerald Isles- is the poetic name of the country. The main rivers of the country are the Bann, the Lagan and the Shannon. They are short but deep.

The capital of the country is Belfast. It is a port of great importance and it is also a university city. Belfast is the commercial and industrial centre. Speaking about the character of the Irish people it is necessary to mention that they always at everything ridiculous and absurd, they like music and singing. The national Irish instrument is the harp. Ireland’s greatest contribution to world culture is the field of literature. Ireland has 2 literatures, one- in the native language, and another in – the English one. Among the famous Anglo-Irish writers are George Bernard Show, Oscar Wilde, James Joyce and others. The Irish people like limericks very much. A limerick is a nonsense poem of 5 lines. And limericks are considered to be the best reflection of the nation’s humour. On the coat-of-arms of Northern Ireland you can see a picture of a hand. Legend says that many hundred years ago two Viking chieftains went with their men in two big boats to Ireland. The first chieftain’s name was Heremon O’Neill, the name of the other we do not know. “The first of us to touch the Irish land will be the king of it”- they agreed. At last they were near the Irish coast. The tow boats were going fast. But the boat of O’Neill was not as fast as the boat of the other chieftain. When the boats were quit near the land, O’Neill quickly cut off his right hand and threw it over to the land. His hand touched the land and he became the king of Ireland.

St.Patrick is the saint patron of the country. St.Patrick’s flag has a red cross on a white field. The national holiday of Irish people is the 17th of March. It is a tradition to decorate themselves with a little shamrock, which has become the national emblem.

  1. Where is Ireland situated?
  2. What territory does it occupy?
  3. What language do the Irish people speak in?
  4. Why do the Irish people call their country the clearest place in the world?
  5. Is the capital of the country Belfast?
  6. What musical instrument is the most popular in the country?
  7. What is the national emblem of the country?
  8. Who was the first king of the country according to the legend?
  9. What is the limerick?

                                                 Wales

Wales is lovely country with great mountains, situated to the west of England. Wales is a peninsula washed by sea from three sides: the Bristol Channel in the south, the St. George Channel in the west, the Irish Sea in the north. Wales is bounded by England only. This country is the smallest part of the United Kingdom. The Welsh called the country “Cymru”, this word means friend. The total area of the country is 8,017 thousand square miles and the population is about 3 mln people. This country is inhabited by the Welsh, whose language is considered to be one of the most difficult, because it has very long words. Officially Wales is divided into 13 counties. It has 3 regions: the Welsh Mountainous area, the Industrial South Wales and the Welsh Borderland. The main rivers of the country are the Severn, the Dee and the Taff.

Now Wales is mainly the land of tourists, nearly 2 million a year. One can hardly forget the beautiful green hills surrounding the sea or golden cliffs of the west. But you must not think that Wales is the country of rest, tourists and pleasure. The Welsh are hardworking people. It is not easy to raise sheep in rainy climate, work in the field or at the chemical plant. Wales is known as a land of music and songs. It is impossible to imagine any Welsh village without a choir. The Welsh is a nation of singers. Since the 12th century there is the annual poetic competition in the town Llangollen. This musical festival is called Eisteddfod. The national festival is held in August and the international one is in July to find the best poet, writer, musician of the country. The winner of the festival receives the crown.

For the tourists visiting Wales the most interesting souvenir is a Welsh love spoon, which is made of wood. It made by the young man as a love token for his sweethearts. If the girl keeps the present, she loves the man. If she sends it back she does not want this man. The climate of the country is rainy; it reflects the mountainous nature of the country. They have all sorts of weather, sometimes it rains; sometimes it snows, especially in mountains.

The capital of the country is Cardiff. It is one of the ancient cities, an important port and tourist centre. As for the Welsh people, they are as a rule short, strong, dark-haired, they also have the reputation of good fighters and lovers of art, that is why Wales is sometimes called “Land of Songs”. The saint patron of the country is St.David. And the 1st of March is the Welsh national holiday. The daffodil is the Welsh national emblem of the country. Wales has its own flag called the Welsh dragon. 

  1. Is Wales a part of the United Kingdom?
  2. What is the population of Wales?
  3. Wales is called a “Land of Songs”, isn’t it?
  4. Why is Welsh considered to be one of the most difficult languages?
  5. What souvenir do the tourists usually bring from Wales?
  6. What city is the capital of Wales?
  7. What do you know about Welsh character?

 

 

 

                                     ENGLAND

England is the southern and the largest component of the United Kingdom. Its poetic name is "Albion"; the Romans associated it with the term "albus" (white) and identified it with the Dover chalk cliffs. England has a total area of 50,383 square miles and is divided into 46 counties. The population of England is 46 million people. England is washed by the North Sea in the east, the Irish Sea in the west, the English Channel and the Strait of Dover in the south. England is bounded by Wales on the west and Scotland in the north. The most important rivers are the Thames (215 miles), the Mercy, the Severn (240miles), the Trent, the Avon and others. The central part of the country is lowland, and in the north of England the Pennine Mountains run from the Scottish borders. The highest point is 893 meters high.

One of the most beautiful places of England is the Lake District, situated in the north - west side of the Pennine system. Lake District has 6 large lakes. People come to the lakes for rock-climbing, swimming, yachting, water skiing. The most famous seaside resorts are Brighton, Hastings and Margate. These cities are considered to be the most magical comers of the country.

English people say, "There is no climate in England, there's only weather". They also say that they have 3 variants of weather: when it rains in the morning; when it rains in the afternoon or when it rains all day long. Sometimes it rains so heavily that they say "It's raining cats and dogs". In general the climate of the country is temperate and moist. The average temperature in winter is -5°C; in summer is +25°C. It often rains in England in all seasons.

The geology and topography of England produce contrasts in landscape. Now the country is becoming increasingly popular as a tourist area. Its cultural heritage is rich and varied with many historical buildings, cathedrals, castles.

Stonehenge, an outstanding monument is also in England. How it was built and why is not known. Perhaps it was built as some kind of religious centre, or may be the position of stones will tell us about the secret of old astronomers. Stonehenge is now visited by so many tourists that it has had to be fenced off for its own protection. The flora of England is rather poor. Heather and oak, lime, beech, fir-tree, ash, chestnut, pine, elm are most numerous in England. Now country has 10 national parks.

As for the fauna of England it is in general similar to that in Europe. There are foxes, hares, squirrels in rural areas. Otters and seals nest near the coast. England has nearly 430 kinds of birds, including many songbirds. There is one kind peculiar to England-the red grouse. River and lake fish include flat fish, salmon, trout, herring.

The capital of England London (7 mln) is situated on the river Thames. It is the chief port of the country and an important manufacturing centre, at the same time it is a great cultural centre of the country, a university city.

The main seaports of the country are London, Bristol, Dover, Liverpool and others. The most famous and oldest universities of England are in Cambridge and Oxford.

 

England is a highly industrialized country. It has few mineral resources of which the most important are coal and oil. The other minerals are copper, lead, zinc, iron ores. The basic industries of England are ferrous metallurgy, shipbuilding, ship-repairing, automobile and aircraft industries, mechanical engineering, electronics and electrical engineering, coal-mining, pharmaceutics. Production of textiles is spread throughout the country, the British wool textile industry has been important since old times. England is also known for hosiery and lace-making.

Though England is a highly industrialized country, agriculture plays an important role in the development of the country. England grows fruit: apples, cherries, raspberries, strawberries, black currants; grain crops: wheat, barley, oats; vegetables: potatoes, turnips, tomatoes, sugar-beet; flowers, especially tulips, and mushrooms.

The country has a long tradition of sheep production; pig breeding is carried out in the main part of England. It is the famous producer of poultry, dairy products. Fishing has always been an important industry, especially in the east.

Englishmen are naturally polite, they don't like to display their emotions in tragic, difficult situations, and they don't like any boasting. Typical English features are independence, self-confidence, self-discipline, a strong belief in private property and love for comfort. Every Englishman is a countryman at heart. The Englishmen like animals very much, especially dogs. .

They are fond of theatre. Now it is a tradition to hold in June the annual Dickens's Festival in Rochester. More than a thousand people from all the country dressed up in Victorian costumes line up for a procession through the town. In the theatre you can see the scenes from Dickens's novels.

The names of English writers such as Daniel Defoe, Jonathan Swift, Charles Dickens, William Shakespeare, Herbert George Wells and Arthur Conan Doyle are well known and loved by the readers all over the world. The national emblem of the country is the rose. The saint patron of the country is St. George and the 23-rd of April is the national English holiday. St. George's flag has a red cross with extended horizontals on a white field.

 

 

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Селенкова Татьяна Ивановна
Английский язык, 11 класс, Тесты