Тексты на английском языке для студентов строительных колледжей.
Text 1: Builder job description. What does a Builder do?
Builders oversee, coordinate and work on the construction or repair of homes and other buildings. In addition to undertaking some of the works personally, some Builders also manage the entire project. This may include arranging for subcontractors to complete specific jobs, and making sure that the project meets industry and government regulations as well as the clients’ requirements.
Builders usually work outdoors in industrial conditions as part of a construction team, and may be required to operate machinery. Due to the hazardous nature of construction work, Builders must comply with strict safety regulations, including and using wearing protective equipment and ensuring the site is safe for all personnel.
Text 2: As a Builder, you’ll be responsible for a range of manual, managerial and administrative responsibilities, which may include:
• Interpreting plans or organizing for plans to be drawn that meet building code regulations and client specifications.
• Providing quotes or submitting tenders for building works.
• Submitting plans to local authorities for approval.
• Arranging inspections of building work.
• Organizing contractors including carpenters, electricians, plumbers and painters to carry out building tasks.
• Undertaking some building work personally.
• Calculating quantities and costs and sourcing of building materials and labor.
• Supervising contractors or employees to ensure safety standards are maintained and works remain on schedule.
• Coordinating administrative tasks such as payment.
Text 3:Design Principles
To meet the cultural, social, and physical requirements of the residents, and to provide a safe dwelling to shelter them from the hazards that may impact from their
environment, a house must be properly designed. In order that the house provides for all the family needs, and keeps them and their loved ones and belongings safe, the following aspects of a house or a structure must be considered in the design:
A safe house must be based on a strong foundation and therefore this must be given primary attention. Problems with foundations not properly designed lead to unequal settlement, cracking of walls and floor, and structural weakness. To resist outside forces, a house needs a coherent and simple structure.
Text4: Building material is any material used for construction purpose such as materials for house building. Wood, cement, aggregates, metals, bricks, concrete, clay are the most common type of building material used in construction. The choices of these are based on their cost effectiveness for building projects.
Many naturally occurring substances, such as clay, sand, wood and rocks, even twigs and leaves have been used to construct buildings. Apart from naturally occurring materials, many man-made products are in use, some more and some less synthetic.
The manufacture of building materials is an established industry in many countries and the use of these materials is typically segmented into specific specialty trades, such as carpentry, plumbing, roofing and insulation work. This reference deals with habitats and structures including homes.
Text 5:Example of bad and good location. This house is located on a river bed, close to running water, where it is very vulnerable to flooding. Not only the house, but also its contents are vulnerable to destruction due to heavy rains. Houses should not be built in such obviously vulnerable locations, or if they are, they should be designed to resist the hazards of their location.
Liquefaction. Example of a well built and well-structured house that was not quite finished when a major hazard struck. The house was structurally good but the foundations were poor for this location. Due to a major earthquake the foundations suffered from liquefaction of the ground, and due to the weight of the house, it subsided unevenly into the ground.
This regularly structured building is able to withstand the impact of hazards. Notice the structure of columns and floors which are all joined to each other in a regular format. Overhanging parts of the building are all well supported by continuous columns to the foundations.
Text 6:What is Eco-friendly material?
Dictionary: describes a product that has been designed to do the least possible damage to the environment. US EPA – EPP program defines as: “products or services that have a lesser or reduced effect on human health and the environment when compared with competing products or services that serve the same purpose”. Thus we talk of two issues – one that it does the least possible environmental damage and two that it is a comparative scale as there are very few materials that are completely eco-friendly. One more point to note when we talk of eco-friendly construction is that it consist of two parts – Material and Technique.