Anosov, Pavel Petrovich (1799 - 1851), a Russian metallurgist. Entered the St.Petersburg Mining Corps of Cadets (Петербургский горный кадетский корпус) at the age of 11. Graduated with honours in 1817 and was appointed to a minor post at the Zlatoust Crown Works (Златоустовские казенные заводы). Promoted to Supervisor of the Zlatoust Arms Factory in 1819, to its Superintendent in 1824, and its Manager in 1829. From 1847 until his death, Chief of the Altai Works.
Anosov won world renown for his writings on the manufacture of iron and his re-discovery of the secret of damascene (дамасская сталь) lost in the Middle Ages. He explained the effect of the chemical composition, structure and treatment of steel on its properties. His findings formed the basis for the science of quality steels. Anosov summed up his studies in his now classical treatise, ‘On Damaskene’ (1841), immediately translated into German and French. Anosov was the first to use the microscope in studies into the structure of steel (1831), thus laying the foundation for the microscopic analysis of metals. Anosov was elected a corresponding member of the Kazan University (1844) and an honorary member of the Kharkov University (1846).
Bessemer, Sir Henry (1813 - 1898), a British civil engineer and inventor, elected to the London Royal Society in 1879. Patented over a hundred inventions in various fields of technology. Those most important were the needle die for postal stamps (игольчатый штамп для марок) and the word-casting machine (словолитная машина) in 1838, the sugar cane press (машина для прессования сахарного тростника) in 1849, and the centrifugal pump (центробежный насос) in 1850. While working on ways and means of improving the quality of a heavy artillery shell in 1854, he felt the need for a better steel-making process. In 1856 he patented a vessel (сосуд) for converting molten pig iron (литое железо) into steel. The process which took place in a vessel was named after him (Бессемеровский процесс) and revolutionized the iron and steel industry.
Exercise 1. Here are some answers to some questions about the text. Work out the questions.
1. Pavel Anosov was 18 when he graduated from the Mining Corps of Cadets. 2. For a long time he was Mining Chief of the Zlatoust Works. 3. In his works he explained the effect of chemical composition of steel on its properties. 4. Bessemer patented over a hundred inventions in various fields of technology. 5. It was Bessemer who advanced the idea of rolling steel without casting it into ingots.
Exercise 2. Read the text carefully and agree or disagree with the statements given below.
1. Anosov was a famous Russian painter. 2. Pavel Anosov re-discovered the secret of damaskene. 3. The secret of damaskene was lost in ancient time. 4. Henry Bessemer was an eletrician. 5. Bessemer had relatively few inventions. 6. Benjamin Huntsman is a well-known British metallurgist of the 18th century. 7. He re-discovered the process of making strong steel.