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Present Perfect и Past Perfect

Теоретическая часть (конспект) + упражнения для отработки Present Perfect и Past Perfect
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НАПИСАТЬ КОНСПЕКТ. ВЫПОЛНИТЬ УПРАЖНЕНИЯ (СМ. НИЖЕ)

THE PRESENT PERFECT И THE PAST PERFECT VS THE PAST SIMPLE

Вре­мя the Present Perfect обыч­но ис­пользу­ет­ся, ког­да мы го­ворим о действии или сос­то­янии, ко­торое на­чалось в прош­лом и уже за­вер­ши­лось, но его ре­зультат име­ет зна­чение в мо­мент ре­чи.

Ес­ли есть об­стоя­тельства, ука­зыва­ющие на вре­мя со­вер­ше­ния действия в прош­лом, то the Present Perfect не упот­ребля­ет­ся, а ис­пользу­ет­ся the Past Simple.

The channels have already started broadcasting the match. — Ка­налы уже на­чали тран­сли­ровать матч.

Ср.:

The channels started broadcasting the match at 6. — Ка­налы на­чали тран­сли­ровать матч в шесть.

Вре­мя the Past Perfect упот­ребля­ет­ся для вы­раже­ния действия или сос­то­яния, за­вер­шивше­гося к оп­ре­делен­но­му мо­мен­ту в прош­лом.

By the year 2000 they had finished building the stadium. — К 2000 го­ду они за­кон­чи­ли строи­тельство ста­ди­она.

Ср.:

In the year 2000 they finished building the stadium. — В 2000 го­ду они за­кон­чи­ли строи­тельство ста­ди­она.

НАРЕЧИЯ И СЛОВОСОЧЕТАНИЯ, ХАРАКТЕРНЫЕ ДЛЯ THE PRESENT PERFECT

today

се­год­ня

this morning/evening

этим ут­ром/ве­чером (ес­ли еще про­дол­жа­ет­ся)

this week/month/year

на этой не­деле / в этом ме­сяце/го­ду

never

ни­ког­да

ever

ког­да-ли­бо

often

час­то

always

всег­да

seldom

ред­ко

already

уже

just

только что

yet (в воп­ро­сительных
и от­ри­цательных пред­ло­жени­ях)

еще

lately

не­дав­но

recently

не­дав­но

by now / up to now

к нас­то­яще­му вре­мени

for several days / for a month

в те­чение нес­кольких дней/ме­сяца

since

(на­чиная) с

 

НАРЕЧИЯ И СЛОВОСОЧЕТАНИЯ, ХАРАКТЕРНЫЕ ДЛЯ THE PAST PERFECT

by 3 o’clock

к трем ча­сам

by Monday

к по­недельни­ку

by the 8th of March

к 8 мар­та

by 2015

к 2015 го­ду

by then

к то­му вре­мени

by that time

к то­му вре­мени

by the end of the week/month/
year

к кон­цу не­дели/ме­сяца/го­да

 

На­речия already, ever, just, never, often, seldom обыч­но ста­вят­ся пе­ред смыс­ло­вым гла­голом; by now, by that time, lately, recently, yet — в кон­це пред­ло­жения.

We have already played a game of tennis.

Have you played a game of tennis yet?

We had already played a game of tennis by that time.

Образование Past Perfect

Утвердительные предложения:

I had played

We had played

You had played

You had played

He / she / it had played

They had played

Вопросительные предложения:

Had I played?

Had we played?

Had you played?

Had you played?

Had he / she / it played?

Had they played?

Отрицательные предложения:

I had not played

We had not played

You had not played

You had not played

He / she / it had not played

They had not played

 

Put the verbs in the correct form. Use yet, already, just where possible.

  • Don’t forget to book the tickets for the match tomorrow!
  • I ...... (to do) that! I ...... (to book) them yesterday.
  • Great! ...... you ...... (to pick) up them?
  • No, I ...... (not to be) to the booking office. But I ...... (to call) them and they ...... (to confirm) that they booked the tickets in the morning.
  • What about the email to the hotel?
  • I ...... (to finish) it but I ...... (not to send) it.
  • I must go now. I ...... (to call) to remind you to finish it! See you later. Bye.
  • Bye!

Insert the verbs in the Past Perfect tense.

  1. I ... (to have) breakfast before I went to school.
  2. He went to meet his friends after he ... (to do) his homework.
  3. By 8 o’clock the rain ... (to stop).
  4. Alice was late because she ... (to miss) the bus.
  5. She went to the post-office after she ... (to write) the letter.
  6. He ... (to work) at the factory before he entered the college.
  7. He got a bad mark for his test because he ... (to make) a lot of mistakes in it.
  8. I went to bed after I ... (to finish) reading the book.
  9. The child ... (to fall) asleep before the parents came home.
  10. They ... (to marry) before they bought this house.

Use Past Simple or Past Perfect.

  1. When Lisa _______ (arrive) at the airport she ____________ (discover) she _________ (forget) her passport.
  2. After visiting the library Nelly __________ (buy) some milk and __________ (go) home.
  3. Zoe ________ (open) her handbag and ___________ (find) out that she _________ (forget) her credit card.
  4. They ____________ (get) home to find that somebody __________ (break) into their house.
  5. Lisa ___________ (know) her husband for two years when they ____________ (get) married.
  6. Jillian ____________ (be) very pleased to see that Jack ______________ (clean) the kitchen.
  7. When Neil ___________ (arrive) at the party he __________ (learn) that Judith ___________ (just / leave).
  8. Bill ___________ (feel) sick last night because he __________ (eat) too many cakes at the party.
  9. First I __________ (tidy) the flat, then I _____________ (sit) down and _________ (have) a cup of tea.
  10. When Molly ________ (open) the curtains she________ (see) that the ground ________ (be) white.

 

Информация о публикации
Загружено: 26 мая
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Анна Александровна Самуйленко
Английский язык, СУЗ, Разное

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