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Исследовательская работа:"Kaluga pages of A.L.Chizhevsky’s scientific and creative activity."

Данная работа представляет деятельность великого учёного на английском языке.1. Introduction. From this work you’ll get to know more about the years of his life in Kaluga, stages of his becoming and formation as the scientist, his contribution to development of sciences. Alexander Leonidovich Chizhevsky – an outstanding Russian scientist, cosmist was also the gifted artist refined by the poet – the philosopher, the musician. He belongs to the plead of the Russian cosmist scientists of the 20-th century. Russian Cosmism – is a broad theory of natural philosophy combining elements of religion and ethics, deals with the history and philosophy of the origin, evolution and future existence of the universe and humankind. It combines elements from both Eastern and Western philosophic traditions as well as from Russian Ortodox Church. A.L. Chizhevsky is regarded the founder of numerous trends in science – air - ionification, heliobiology, electro – haemotology. « Leonardo da Vinchi of XX century » - so participants of the I International congress on the biological physics and biological cosmology taken place in New – York in September, 1939, named A.L.Chizhevsky and he was held its Honorary President. Alongside with such leading figures in science as K.E.Tsiolkovsky and V.I.Vernadsky, he began new space outlook. Detection of space factors influences on biological and socially – historical processes – one of his most significant contributions to modern scientific thinking.
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Contents:

1.Introduction.

2.1. A.L. Chizhevsky in Kaluga.

2.2. Meeting with K.E. Tsiolkovsky.

2.3. The role of music in Chizhevsky’ s life.

2.4. A.L. Chizhevsky and poetry.

2.5. A.L. Chizhevsky as a painter.

3.Conclusion.

4.Literature.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Kaluga pages of A.L.Chizhevsky’s  scientific and creative activity

Дворягина Лилия Анатольевна

педагог дополнительного обраования

МБОУ ДО ДЮЦКО «Галактика» города Калуги

 

1. Introduction.

From this  work you’ll get to know more about the years of his life in Kaluga, stages of his becoming and formation as the scientist, his contribution to development of sciences.

   Alexander Leonidovich Chizhevsky – an outstanding Russian scientist, cosmist was also the gifted artist refined by the poet – the philosopher, the musician. He belongs to the plead of the Russian cosmist scientists of the 20-th century.

    Russian Cosmism – is a broad theory of natural philosophy combining elements of religion and ethics, deals with the history and philosophy of the origin, evolution and future existence of the universe and humankind. It combines elements from both Eastern and Western philosophic traditions as well as from Russian Ortodox Church. A.L. Chizhevsky  is regarded the founder of numerous trends in science – air - ionification, heliobiology, electro – haemotology.

  « Leonardo da Vinchi of XX century » - so participants of the I International congress on the biological physics and biological cosmology taken place in New – York in September, 1939, named A.L.Chizhevsky and he was held its Honorary President. Alongside with such leading figures in science as K.E.Tsiolkovsky and V.I.Vernadsky, he began new space outlook. Detection of space factors influences on biological and socially – historical processes – one of his most significant contributions to modern scientific thinking.

2.1. A.L. Chizhevsky in Kaluga.

     Kaluga takes a special place in A.L.Chizhevsky's life and various creative activity . In 1913 Leonid Vasilevich - the father of the future scientist, the personnel militarian, received purpose in the artillery battalion placed in Kaluga. Here, at the corner of streets Ivanovo and Vasilevskaya (nowadays Moskovskaya street, 62) they lived in the house with an attic. Phisycs – chemical laboratory was arranged for Alexander in one of the rooms. In this house he lived and worked from 1913 – 1925.Here he started his scientific work and conducted there three series of experimental research on the influence of ionized air on animals. That enabled the young scientist to make the important  conclusion that negative charged ions of air had favourable effect on them. In this house he discovered one more trend of science and that is heliobiology.

      The house is kept up to now.

      In 1913 Chizhevsky acts in private real school by F.M. Shakhmagonov.

2.2. Meeting with K.E. Tsiolkovsky.

      In Kaluga Chizhevsky becomes as a scientist and meets K.E.Tsiolkovsky. This meeting had a fatal value for him. A.L.Chizhevsky recollected in the end of his life: “ In my heart Konstantin Eduardovich takes a special place: the big interval of time we were together. Besides erudition in the diversified areas of  science and his exclusive charm as person, he often stated ideas absolutely unusual and surprising about space, about the future of mankind, an idea about which  it was impossible to read through or hear anywhere … And dialogue with him brought sweeping changes in my outlook. By means of bright examples he  inspired me an idea on necessity of deep studying mathematical sciences and physics, so important for scientific activity in the field of natural sciences … Konstantin Eduardovich's kind advice had brought to me greater advantage then. ”

     As a result of discussions with Tsiolkovsky Chizhevsky starts to investigate problems sun – terrestrial communications. In 1915 he acts with the report       «Periodic influence of the Sun on the ground s biosphere » at session of the Kaluga society on studying the nature.

     1915 – 1918 Chizhevsky studies in the Kaluga branch of the Moscow archeological institute, and in 1918 defends the dissertation on a theme: « Research of periodicity world-wide - historical process ».

    Since 1918  Chizhevsky is engaged in experimental researches of physiological influence of atmospheric electricity. He spends all researches in his own house laboratory in Kaluga.

     1919, Kaluga - Chizhevsky reads the report on positive influence on alive organisms of negative ions of air before members of a scientific organization. In the further A.L.Chizhevsky became widely known all over the world by « the Kaluga experiences » and it brought him to a wide popularity in scientific circles and an official recognition as « the father of aeroionization ».

    In 1923 Chizhevsky stood up for K.E.Tsiolkovsky's priority in the field of roketflying, retyped his pioneer clause 1903 and dispatched it in 250 leading scientific worlds.

   In 1924 Chizhevsky manages to publish an extraction from the thesis for a doctor's degree under the name « Physical factors of historical process ». The sense of concept was reduced to the following: cycles of solar activity prove in biosphere, changing vital processes, beginning from productivity and finishing desease and a mental mood of the person. It affects the dynamics of historical events: wars, revolutions, politic and economic crises. He managed to establish cycles and rhythms of space interaction and historical process on the Earth. This publication caused criticism as his theory was not coordinated with the official concept of historical process. Encouragement was rendered to Chizhevsky by Tsiolkovsky. He published the review of A.L.Chizhevsky's work in the Kaluga newspaper "Commune"(on the 4th of April, 1924) and refers to a positive response about these researches of the known scientist- biophysiсs P.P.Lazarev.

2.3.  The role of music in Chizhevsky’ s life.

     Continuing the researches in the house laboratory, attending the lectures in the Moscow State University (in 1915 – 1922гг.), A.L.Chizhevsky simultaneously is Chairman of the Kaluga branch of the All-Russia poets union.

     A.L.Chizhevsky considered, that « the literature and music, painting and sculpturing are true engines of world Culture ».

     Scientific work was harmoniously combined with creative activity that promoted reflection of his philosophical sights at the world. He was the physicist and lyrics at the same time.

     Chizhevsky wrote: « Since the early childhood I have passionately grown fond of music, poetry, painting, and this love did not decrease, and accepted more and more passionate character even then when the ship of my basic aspirations has gone on a waterway of a science ».

    A.L.Chizhevsky played the violin and the grand piano since the early childhood. In his family a great attention was paid to the education of the unique son. A big influence on Chizhevsky was rendered by his aunt - Olga Vasilevna. She replaced him his mother. His father noticed the son s interest to a violin and in 1913 he brought   the violin of Italian master David Tehlera for him from Warsaw.

2.4. A.L. Chizhevsky and poetry.

    But among all arts Chizhevsky preferred poetry. The poetry, in his opinion, « in a condition to cause the most universal and full values of feeling », to bring up soul of the person: « It is enough for a true poet to tell two, three words to express almost inexpressible!... »

   Special role in education of Chizhevsky allocates poetry: “ the Poetry being truthful teller that is made in secret hiding places of spirit   should play a great role in this case. ”

  Known Russian literary critic V.G.Belinsky characterizing two types of creativity wrote: « the philosopher speaks symbols, the poet – images and pictures ». Chizhevsky managed to think both symbols and images.

   Especially quiveringly Alexander Leonidovich concerned to the Native land, he does not cease to admire with the native land  remaining its true patriot.

   Kaluga  takes a special place in Chizhevsky's life . He presents  his pleasure of the opening, new  knowledge of the world in poems. This harmony of sensations often returns him to lovely Kaluga.

     On a boundary of two historical epoch (1917 – 1918) Chizhevsky reflected on a place and a role of art , in particular poetry, in a life of society .As a  result of his reflections became the original aesthetic treatise « Academy of poetry ».The unknown project of academy in which « poets are united for the general fruitful work » contains in it , and all interested persons can receive the "academic" formation under the grandiose program numbering 60 subjects. The substantive provisions of an aesthetics formulated by Chizhevsky in this treatise, and his poetry 1910 – 1920 are close to products of Bryusov’s, Voloshin’ s "space" poetry.

   1915 - the  first collection of his poems is published in Kaluga, and in               1919 – the second « the Writing-book of poems » is published. And then there were not any  more separate collections of his poems. 

    From all poets of time of A.L.Chizhevsky considered V.Brjusov the most close and as the most authoritative for himself and addresses to him with the request to assess poems  of 1914 –1918 years.

    Chizhevsky was not only Bryusov’s pupil. In his creativity we can feel  traditions of philosophical lyrics of Goethe, Derzhavin, Tyutchev  and later  N.Zabolotsky.

   Many famous poets marked   perfection of Chizhevsky verses. A.N.Tolstoy responded about landscape lyrics of the poet: « your verses are a fruit of big art feeling  that is why their value in the Russian literature is rather great … Anybody from modern  poets do not transfer better than you the most thin moods caused by natural phenomena. Since times of  Tyutchev there is a big blank  in this area. Your products should fill it ».

    Chizhevsky as well as Tyutchev is the singer of the nature. The nature in his verses is embodied in movement, change of the phenomena, landscapes are full with pressure and dramatic nature. Chizhevsky's verses reflect his aspiration to understand opposition of life and death, the contradiction of limiting and boundless, a collision of final and infinite in a person, the nature and the universe.

     In poetry as well as in science Chizhevsky aspires to comprehend philosophically a life of the Universe, to glance in secrets of a space life and human life. Having seized achievements of a philosophical and poetic idea of the predecessors and contemporaries, in his poetic and scientific products he gives his own unique art and scientific decision of philosophical problems in life and its current in time.

   Chizhevsky observes changes in the nature at various seasons of the year. But as well as it is inherent to the person refined and lyrical he does it with different mood. We feel a solemn march of spring arrival reading « The Birth of spring » (1910).Sadness sounds in a poem "Spring".

    A.L.Chizhevsky wrote not only about the nature, but also about the mutual relations with people, love, philosophy, space.                                                                                                                                                          

    The theme of Space became not only a scientific subject, but also creative searches for A.L.Chizhevsky.

    Space bodies are heroes of his poems, stars become the symbol of the novel.

    In a poem philosophical motives – transitoriness of life and eternity of Space, alternation of generations as constant law of a life sound. Chizhevsky feels himself as a part of the nature, a part of the past and the present world, communication with all who lived on this ground up to it, and with those who will come in the world then.

   Chizhevsky  reflected  ideas on interrelation of space and person in a poem «Gipokratu» (1915).

    All aspects of space influence , and in particular the Sun, to the Earth and mankind are reflected by Chizhevsky in a poem «Galiley».

     As basis for creation  this poem by Chizhevsky  became his work in sphere of heliobiology – sciences about influence of a sunlight on alive organisms on the Earth .The scientific aspect of A.L.Chizhevsky s activity is reflected in such poems as: « About time and space », "Space", "Matter".

     The scientist speaks about one of the discovery- aeroinofication in a poem "Person".

   A.L.Chizhevsky – the bright representative of Russian kosmism. Such poets as Dantе, Bacon,Whittman, Carpenter, Tennison, etc., possessed « space consciousness».In Russian this remarkable features were shown by Derzhavin, Pushkin, Tyutchev ». But, unlike the predecessors who considered the space beginning separately from terrestrial, he considered, that the person not simply contemplator of the space worlds, but a part of space.

     The deep philosophical reflections, new attitude  allowed Chizhevsky to embody pathetically and truly the nature not only in verses, but also in picturesque creations.

                                   2.5. A.L. Chizhevsky as a painter.

     He  studied painting in the early childhood in the Parisian interior at artist Gjustava Node – the pupil of the known artist of impressionist Edgara Degas. The impressionism rendered the big influence on his formation as the artist. Having taken from impressionists separate principles, Chizhevsky, indoubtedly, found the art language. He works with gouache,  water color, color pencils that was not done by impressionists. Chizhevsky wrote pictures basically on memory whereas it was possible to impressionists only in the open air.

   As well as verses, his landscapes induce us to reflections. Especially he loved silent autumn days when there was no bright sun and when all was full of harmony.

   In Chizhevsky’s paintings, as well as in his poetry, the major role is played with an image of the sun through penetrating his many landscapes ("Pines", « And again upon autumn », « Elements dawn »).

  The lyrical perception of the nature only supplements the philosopher – kosmist Chizhevsky. In his landscapes exact scientific knowledge merges together with spiritual essence of the artist. On his canvases the nature of the Earth appears in the philosophically - generalized kind. Chizhevsky's art creativity bears power of true Beauty.

  Unfortunately, from numerous picturesque works of the scientist (nearby 2000) it was kept about 300 of his canvases up to now. Most of them can be seen in the State museum of astronautics history  by K.E.Tsiolkovsky  in Kaluga.

 

3. Conclusion.

  On the 5-th of February, 1990, the Kaluga region executive committee (local authorities) passed the resolution on establishing the Chizhevsky  science – memorial museum in his native house.

   On the 19 –th of February, 2000, the Chizhevsky science – memorial and cultural Centre  was opened for the public.

   Visitors can enjoy the effect of the air ionizer “The Chizhevsky Chandelier”. Visitors can listen to the series of lectures on the scientist s biography and work, watch the video film and have a séance of ionized air disease – prevention, all at the same moment, they can also book the tour to memorial places, associated with Chizhevsky’s life in Kaluga and also the musical – poetic slide show “ I’ ll come to you when the lines come true…”, in which one can see  the slides of Chizhevsky’s paintings and listen to his beloved musical compositions, and also songs and romances  on his verses( the compose R. Vorobyov).

  We are proud of our well - known countryman A.L.Chizhevsky.

                                                       Literature.

1. Engelgardt L.T., A.Manakin. Poetry of painting . Kaluga: Gold avenue, 2000.

2. Chizhevsky А.L. In a science I have passed for the poet … Kaluga, Gold avenue, 1996.

  1. Chizhevsky A.L.All a life. - М., the Soviet Russia, 1974.

     4.  CD – Russian Space. State museum of astronautics history

        by K.E.Tsiolkovsky, Kaluga, 2001.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Анкета.

 

  1. Дворягина Лилия Анатольевна.
  2. Паспорт: серия 29 02 № 474289

ОВД Ленинского округа г. Калуги, 02.07.2002

  1. Страховое свидетельство Пенсионного фонда РФ № 057-714-228-69
  2. ИНН-402707333577
  3. 11 августа 1966 г.
  4. 248033 г.Калуга, ул. Ген. Попова, д. 14/1, кв. 36.
  5. 72- 92- 74- дом.тел.

сот.тел. – 89106063735

  1. Место работы – г. Калуга, МОУ ДОД «Клуб юных космонавтов»
  2. Педагог дополнительного образования, руководитель студии «Английский язык».
  3. Образование – высшее.

Калужский  государственный педагогический институт им. К.Э. Циолковского

 

 

Автор – Дворягина Л.А.

 

26.04.07.      

 

 

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Дворягина Лилия Анатольевна
Английский язык, 11 класс, Уроки

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